Battle of Okinawa
The Japanese government of terminal symptoms
    アメリカ軍、沖縄に上陸  The U.S. Forces land at Okinawa.

時代は、第二次世界大戦最末期。アメリカ軍が 硫黄島 を占領し、いよいよ、日本本土 への攻撃、占領を狙う作戦に入りました。

Time is the World War II maximum last stage. The U.S. Forces went into the strategy which occupies Iwo-jima and then aims at the attack and occupation to the mainland of Japan still more.

Main Okinawa island landing of the U.S. Forces
アメリカ は、はじめ、台湾攻略を考えたようですが、フィリピン奪回成功により、台湾占領は戦略的意義がうすれたと見て、沖縄侵攻 に切り替えたとのことです。

Although it seems that the United States considered the Taiwan capture in the beginning, by the Philippines recapture success, the Taiwan occupation concluded that strategic significance faded and changed Okinawa to the strategy which invades.

沖縄 は、日本本土への空襲と進攻の基地に最適なのはもちろん、戦後をも見据えて、中国・朝鮮半島などへのにらみを利かせるのに、重要な拠点となると見たのでしょう。

Probably, it was concluded that Okinawa served as a base important for gazing also at the postwar period and exercising its authority to China, the Korean Peninsula, etc. as well as being the best for the air raid to the mainland of Japan, and the base of an attack.

日本の大本営は、沖縄侵攻 の可能性が高いと判断して、現地防衛軍に警戒度最高の配備を発令しました。

It judged that the Imperial Headquarters in Japan had the high possibility of the
Okinawa invasion, and issued disposition of the highest degree of watch to local defense forces.

昭和20年(1945年)3月23日、アメリカ軍は、沖縄県 一帯に、延べ2千機による空襲と、沖縄本島 南部に、戦艦5隻からの艦砲射撃を行いました。そして、艦艇1500隻、輸送船450隻、兵員54万人もの攻略部隊を集結しました。

The U.S. Forces performed the air raid by a total of 2000 sets to whole
Okinawa, and did the bombardment from a warship of the southern main Okinawa island by five battleships on March 23, 1945. And 1500 warships, 450 transport ships, and a 540,000 personnel thing capture unit were concentrated.

3月26日、アメリカ軍は、沖縄本島 の西・慶良間(けらま)列島 に上陸、座間味(ざまみ)島 などを占領して、ここから沖縄本島南部への砲撃を始めました。

Becoming on March 26, the U.S. Forces landed at the
Kerama islands of the west of a main Okinawa island, and began the bombardment to the southern main Okinawa island from here.

4月1日、アメリカ軍は、守備の手薄な 沖縄本島 なかほどの西海岸から上陸開始。嘉手納(かてな) の飛行場を占領、4月5日には東海岸(現・うるま市)まで進んで、日本軍を本島の南北に分断しました。

The U.S. Forces are a
main Okinawa island where defense is scanty on April 1. Landing was started from West Coast of middle. The airfield in Kadena was occupied immediately, and it went to East Coast on April 5, and divided the Japanese army to the north and south of main island.

4月6日から、日本陸海軍は、連合国軍艦隊・船団に対して、特攻機を中心とする猛反撃を加え、戦艦・大和(やまと) も出撃しました。.

Japanese military and naval forces added the furious counterattack centering on the suicide aircraft from April 6 to the allied force fleet and the convoy, and battleship Yamato also sortied.

Battleship Yamato which receives attacks
from many U.S. ship airplanes
Battleship Yamato caused
loud explosion and sank

この攻撃で、連合国軍の艦艇6隻を撃沈、ほかにも大きな損害を与えましたが、日本側も多数の航空機を失いました。そして、沖縄本島 北部の坊の 岬沖海戦 で、戦艦・大和 はアメリカ艦載機多数の攻撃を受け、大爆発を起こして沈没。日本海軍は最後の艦隊6隻を失ってしまいました。

Although six warships of an allied force were sunk by this attack and damage serious otherwise was done, the Japan side also lost many airplanes. And at the naval battle of the northern main Okinawa island, in response to the attack of U.S. ship airplane a large number, battleship Yamato caused loud explosion and sank. The Sea of Japan army has lost the last six battleships.

焦土と化した那覇市  Naha reduced to ashes
沖縄本島北部 には、日本軍の兵力は少なく、4月22日までにアメリカ軍に制圧されました。アメリカ軍は 本部半島 の対岸の 伊江島 を攻撃占領。この島に飛行場を設営しました。

The military power of the Japanese army of the
northern main Okinawa island was suppressed by the U.S. Forces by April 22. The U.S. Forces occupied Iejima of the opposite shore of the Motobu peninsula. This island was prepared for the airfield.

日本軍の主力のいる 沖縄本島南部 でのアメリカ軍との戦闘は、劇烈を極めました。両軍とも多数の死傷者を出しながら、5月の始めから終わりまで攻撃、反撃を繰り返しました。アメリカ軍は 首里市 を占領するのに5月末までかかりました。

The battle of the southern main Okinawa island in which the main force of a Japanese army is present was severe. While both armies took out many casualties, the attack and the counterattack were repeated from the start in May to the end. The U.S. Forces started occupying Shuri till the end of May.


沖縄県民斯ク戦ヘリ 県民ニ対シ後世特別ノゴ高配ヲ賜ランコトヲ


By entering in June, although the Sea of Japan army landing force took and fought an army unit and another action, he was surrounded by the U.S. Forces and destroyed completely in mid-June. Major General Ota, a commander, is the Under Secretary of the Navy.

" The residents of Okinawa often fought. Please carry out special consideration to people of Okinawa at the next world. "

Self-decision was carried out after sending the famous farewell telegraphic communication to say.

沖縄本島南部 の陸軍部隊も、アメリカ軍に追い詰められて急速に戦力を失い、沖縄守備軍司令官・牛島満中将は 摩文仁(まぶに) の司令部で自決、沖縄守備軍はほぼ全滅しました。6月25日、大本営は、沖縄本島での組織的戦闘の終了 を発表しました。

Southern main Okinawa island The army unit was also driven into the U.S. Forces, and lost military power quickly, the Okinawa defense army commander and Lieutenant General Mitsuru Ushijima did self-decision in the headquarters of Mabuni, and it destroyed him totally the Okinawa defense army mostly.
The Imperial Headquarters announced
the end of the systematic battle in a main Okinawa island on June 25.

            * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

戦後、沖縄 は、5年余りアメリカ軍の軍政下に置かれ、講和後も、琉球列島米国民政府とその下部機関の琉球政府による統治が20年以上続きました。施政権が日本に返還され沖縄県 が復活したのは、昭和47年(1972年)5月のことです。

Okinawa is placed after the war under the military government of a little more than five-year U.S. Forces -- after peace -- the Ryukyu islands U.S. -- civil administration -- the government by a prefecture and the Ryukyu government of the subordinate agencies continued for 20 years or more. Administrative power was returned to Japan and Okinawa Prefecture revived in May, 1972

     Koiso resignation of the Cabinet en mass
     Kantaro Suzuki Cabinet inauguration

昭和20年(1945年)4月5日小磯内閣が総辞職 しました。沖縄にアメリカ軍が上陸したばかりなのに、また、内閣が総辞職してどうなるのかと、不安がつのりました。

The Koiso Cabinet resigned in a body on April 5, 1945. Uneasiness recruited whether although the U.S. Forces have just landed at Okinawa, the Cabinet resigns in a body again and what happens, and me

(首相就任時、出典 Wikipedia)
Kantaro Suzuki (at the time of the
prime minister assumption of office)
鈴木内閣発足(出典 Wikipedia)
The Suzuki Cabinet inauguration
小磯内閣 は、成立のときから弱体な内閣だったそうです。というのは、陸軍内でもまだ東条派の人物が多く、統帥部である参謀本部からも、陸軍省からも、距離を置かれていたのです。

It is said that the Koiso Cabinet was the weak Cabinet from the time of formation. Because, its distance is kept also from the Department of the Army also from the General Staff Office in which there are many the Tojo group's persons and Prime Minister Koiso is still Supreme command part also within an army.

小磯首相 の唱えていた戦いの ”天王山” とは、フィリピンのレイテ島作戦 で、アメリカの陸海軍を殲滅することだったようです。ところが、反対に、日本の連合艦隊 が殲滅され、フィリピン の諸島で、陸軍も敗北を重ねました。そのうえ、硫黄島 を占領されて、日本への空襲は激化。

Prime Minister Koiso. He seems that the recited space fighting a decisive battle was the Leyte strategy of the Philippines, and smashing American military and naval forces. However, the Japanese combined fleet was smashed on the contrary, and the army also repeated defeat on the islands in the Philippines. Moreover, iwo-jima was occupied on it and the air raid to Japan intensified.

小磯首相 は、現役に復帰して陸軍大臣を兼務しようとしても軍につぶされ、中華民国 との単独講和の画策も失敗。新設した 最高戦争指導会議 でも、統帥部 の充分な協力が得られず、小磯内閣 は8ヶ月半の短命で総辞職しました。

Even if Prime Minister Koiso is going to return to active service and is going to hold an additional post of an army minister, it is crushed by the army. The scheme of the separate peace treaty to Republic of China was also divided into failure. Sufficient cooperation of military and naval forces is not obtained at the Highest war instruction meeting established newly, either. the Koiso Cabinet resigned in a body in a short life of eight months and a half.

次ぎの総理大臣が発表されて、驚きました。海軍大将・鈴木貫太郎(すずき かんたろう) です。驚いたのはその年齢でした。鈴木貫太郎 、このとき77歳。こんなおじいさんの総理大臣で戦争が続けられるのか、と心配になりました。

I was surprised, seeing the next Prime Minister's name. He is Kantaro Suzuki, an admiral. What I was surprised at was the age. Kantaro Suzuki was 77 years old at this time. I became anxious whether war would be continued such a old Prime Minister.

聞いてみると、鈴木貫太郎 は、日露戦争の日本海海戦で、「坂の上の雲」で有名な 秋山真之(さねゆき) の指揮のもと、駆逐(くちく)艦隊を率いて戦功を挙げ、それから海軍大将まで昇りつめた人。そして、昭和11年(1936年)の 二・二六事件 のときは、侍従長をしていて、青年将校の襲撃で瀕死の重傷を負った人、ということでした。

When it was heard, Kantaro Suzuki was the person who commands destroyer flotilla by Battle of Tsushima of the Russo-Japanese War, and rose even to the admiral. And he was the person who is acting as Emperor's Showa grand chamberlain to the Emperor, and got seriously injured by the youth officer's attack at the time of the February 26th Incident in 1936

鈴木貫太郎 、満77歳2ヶ月での総理大臣就任は、日本の内閣総理大臣就任の最高齢記録です。

The Prime Minister assumption of office in Kantaro Suzuki's full 77 years-old two months is the oldest record of the Prime Minister assumption of office of Japan.

のちに知ったところでは、総理大臣候補を選ぶ重臣会議でも、意見が分かれてまとまらないなか、固辞する 鈴木貫太郎 に、昭和天皇 が頼むようにして引き受けさせた、ということでした。

In the inside whose opinion is divided and do not settle even in the senior statesmen's conference which chooses the Prime Minister candidate when got to know later He was Emperor Showa to Kantaro Suzuki who declines firmly. It was having made taking over, as it asked.

鈴木貫太郎 の後添いの妻・たか は、昭和天皇 が4歳のときから10年間、皇孫(こうそん)養育係 として宮中に仕えた婦人で、昭和天皇 の第二の母 のような存在でした。貞明(ていめい)皇后 (昭和天皇の母・当時は皇太后)も、鈴木貫太郎天皇の親代わりになってくれと、首相就任を頼んだそうです。

鈴木内閣発足から5日後に、ルーズベルト・アメリカ大統領 が死去 しました。鈴木貫太郎 は、短波放送を通じて





Roosevelt U.S. President died five days after inauguration of the Suzuki Cabinet. Kantaro Suzuki needs to lead shortwave broadcasting.

"I send deep condolences to an American citizen. However, I do not think that efforts for the continuation of war to Japan in the United States change according to Mr. Roosevelt's death."

The discourse to say was sent to the world. The experts in the world who heard this discourse,

"Bushido of Japan is not dead yet."

It admired.

ルーズベルト の死去により、副大統領の トルーマン がアメリカ大統領となりました。

Truman, the Vice-President, became U.S. President by death of Roosevelt.


But, at this time of which the U.S. Forces landed at Okinawa and the severe battle began , what the Cabinet replaces ? Uneasiness just increased again.

            * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 

小磯国昭 は、戦後の極東国際軍事裁判で、A級戦犯として終身禁固刑となり、昭和25年(1950年)、巣鴨拘置所で食道がんにより死亡しました。享年70歳。

Kuniaki Koiso died of esophagus cancer at the Sugamo prison in 1950 after being sentenced to life imprisonment as an A-class war criminal by postwar International Military Tribunal for the Far East.He was 70 years old of age at death.

     Important vassals' peace argument
     The inside of a hand is perceived

戦前の 大日本帝国 は、天皇 の統治する国。もちろん、主権在民ではありません。この時代に実際に国の方針を決め、国を動かしていたのは 天皇 を取り巻く、国の上層部 でした。そして、議院内閣制で政権が決まる現在の国の姿より、もっと複雑でした。

The great Japan empire of prewar days was a country over which the Emperor reigns. Of course, it is not sovereignty rests with the people. It is the Emperor who actually decided the plan of the country and was moving the country to this time. They were people of the upper levels of the country to surround. And it was more complicated than the figure of the present country where political power is decided by parliamentary cabinet system.

枢密院会議(出典 Wikipedia) Privy Council meeting
内閣 は国家行政の執行機関。その長である総理大臣 は、元老や重臣たちの助言と推薦を受けて、天皇 が任命します。

The Cabinet is an executive organ of national administration. The Emperor appointed the Prime Minister who is the merit in response to advice and recommendation of senior statesmen and important vassals.

陸海軍 天皇 に直属し、戦時となれば 大本営 を設置して、作戦を立て、戦争を指揮し、その命令に従って、戦地の部隊は戦闘を行ないます。

Military and naval forces were under direct control of the Emperor. When it was warring, the Imperial Headquarters were installed, strategy was stood and war was commanded. The unit of the battlefield battled according to the command of the Imperial Headquarters.

このほかに、天皇の諮問(しもん)機関として、枢密院(すうみついん)・重臣(じゅうしん)会議・内大臣府(ないだいじんふ) がありました。

As the other Emperors' consultative body, there were the Privy Council, a senior statesmen's conference, and Naidaijinfu.

枢密院 とはずいぶん難しい名称ですが、昔の中国にあった皇帝の諮問機関の名を、そのまま採ったそうです。枢密院 には顧問官が何人かいて、国家の重要な機密事項について、天皇の諮問に対して答申をします。鈴木貫太郎 は、総理大臣になる前、枢密院議長 でした。

It is said that the name of the consultative body of the emperor who was in old China was taken as it was although the Privy Council was a fairly difficult name. How many councillors wrote the Privy Council and it submitted a report to it to consultation of the Emperor about the important national secret matter. Before Kantaro Suzuki became the Prime Minister, he was the Lord President of the Council.

重臣会議 は、総理大臣経験者によって構成され、おもに次の総理大臣の候補者を選ぶために開かれ、結果を 天皇 に奏上(そうじょう)します。総理大臣候補者の人選には、明治以来、元老と称する人たちが当たってきましたが、昭和になって元老 西園寺公望(さいおんじ きんもち) 一人になり、老年にもなったので、重臣会議 がそれに代わったと聞いています。

The senior statesmen's conference was constituted by the former Prime Minister, it was held in order to mainly choose the next Prime Minister's candidate, and it told the Emperor the result. Although people who call a senior statesman have been in charge of the Prime Minister candidate's appointment since Meiji, since it became Showa, and the senior statesman became only Kinmochi Saionji and also became an old age, the senior statesmen's conference has heard that it was replaced.

内大臣府 は、宮中(きゅうちゅう)に置かれ、その長の 内大臣(ないだいじん) は、天皇の側近にいて、天皇を補佐し、天皇 の相談相手にもなり、天皇 の意向の伝達役もしたようです。

Naidaijinfu is placed into the Imperial Palace and Naidaijin was near the Emperor, the Emperor was assisted and it also became the Emperor's adviser. Moreover, the role of transfer of the Emperor's intention was also carried out.

岡田啓介 Keisuke Okada 木戸幸一 Kouichi Kido
このときの 内大臣 は、木戸幸一(きど こういち)。木戸幸一 は、明治維新の三傑の一人・木戸孝允(きどたかよし・旧名 桂小五郎)の妹の孫で、父が木戸家を相続し、そのあとを継いだ者。木戸幸一 近衛文麿 と同級生で、国の重要事項の決定に、隠然たる影響力を持っていました。

Naidaijin at this time was Kouichi Kido. He is a grandchild of younger sister of Takayoshi Kido . Kouichi Kido is a classmate of a university of Fumimaro Konoe , and had secret influence on the determination of the important matter of a country.

東条英機 は、サイパン島陥落の責任を問われて退陣したにもかかわらず、重臣会議 では発言が大きかったそうです。鈴木貫太郎 を首相候補と決めるときも、



It is said that the utterance in the senior statesmen's conference was large although Hideki Tojyo undertook and resigned from the responsibility for the Saipan Island surrender. Also when fixing upon Kantaro Suzuki as a candidate for prime minister, It opposed in order that

"An army may look away if things other than an army become the Prime Minister."

これに対して、二・二六事件当時の首相・岡田啓介 から、

 「陛下のご命令で組閣をする者に、そっぽを向くとはなにごとか ! 戦争がここまで追い詰められたのは、陸軍の責任ではないか !

 と反論され、東条 は一言も無かった、と伝えられています。

On the other hand, Keisuke Okada, the prime minister at the time of the February 26th Incident,

"Is looking away to those who form a cabinet by the command of His Majesty the Emperor what? Isn't that war was cornered so far the responsibility for army? "

Since a counterargument was brought forth, Tojyo is told that there was also no word.

海軍大将・岡田啓介 は、元々和平派で、鈴木内閣 の影にいて、終始、鈴木首相 に助言を行ないました。

Keisuke Okada, the admiral, was a peace group from the first. He was in the shadow and advised Prime Minister Suzuki.


After the war situation became severe, the upper levels of the country were divided into the war completion group and the peace group, and there was a secret strife. However, the utterance or action in which the peace group also became public for fear of the power of a war completion group's army were not completed.

元総理大臣・近衛文麿 は、昭和天皇 に対して、和平の道を開くために、天皇 が命令を発して、陸軍を粛清して建て直すよう、上奏文を提出しました。しかし、昭和天皇


と言って採り上げませんでした。ここまで追い詰められて、もはや、戦果を挙げることなどできないと思うのが普通でしょうに。軍の 大元帥(だいげんすい) の 天皇 までもが陸軍の戦争完遂派に遠慮していたようです。

To Emperor Showa, Fumimaro Konoe, the former Prime Minister, submitted the address to the throne as institute a purge of and rebuild an army, in order to pave the way for peace. However, Emperor Showa

"I think that the talk is difficult with not coming out, after mentioning success in battle once again."

It did not say and take up. thinking that it cannot perform already mentioning success in battle etc. even if cornered so far -- being common . It seems that even the Emperor of the generalissimo of thd army was keeping his distance from the army war completion group.

近衛文麿 は、陸軍の戦争遂行派にかつがれて、総理大臣を3期も続けた人物。中華民国 との戦争を起こして、さらに大戦争への道を進めておきながら、この期になって、天皇に ”陸軍の粛清” などと、よくも言えたものだと思います。

Fumimaro Konoe is the person to whom it was shouldered by the army war execution group, and 3 terms also continued the Prime Minister. I think that it became a term of this and was able to tell the Emperor "the army cleanup" etc. also well while causing war with the Republic of China and advancing the way to gigantic war further.

この上奏文提出の情報が軍に洩れて、近衛 の相談を受けた、のちの総理大臣・吉田茂(よしだしげる)が、憲兵(けんぺい)隊に逮捕されました。

Shigeru Yoshida, the Prime Minister after the information on this address-to-the-throne presentation leaking to an army and responding to a request of the Imperial Guards, was arrested by the military police

スターリン Stalin モロトフ Molotov
お人よしの 近衛文麿 は、なおも和平の道を開こうと、連合国のうち 日本 と中立条約を結んでいた ソ連 に、アメリカ・イギリス との和平の仲立ちを頼もうとして、ソ連 の日本駐在大使を通じてモスクワ訪問を申し出ました。しかし、ソ連外相・モロトフ は、この申し出を断わりました。

Good-natured Fumimaro Konoe tries to ask for intermediation of peace with the United States or Britain the Soviet Union which tried to pave the way for peace still more, and had contracted the neutrality pact with Japan among the Allies . The visit to Moscow was offered through the Japanese residence ambassador. However, Molotov, the Soviet Union foreign minister, refused this proposal.

モロトフ外相 は、小磯内閣が総辞職したその日に、「日ソ中立条約を延長しない」 と通告して来ていました。このとき、ヤルタ会談で、ソ連の対日参戦の秘密協定が、すでに結ばれていたのです。

Foreign Minister Molotov "does not renew Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact" on the day which the Koiso Cabinet resigned in a body. It was announcing. At this time, the confidential agreement of anti-Japanese participation in the war of the Soviet Union was already made with Yalta Conference.

近衛文麿 は、おろかにも、日本を虎視眈々(こしたんたん)と狙う ソ連邦書記長・スターリン に、手の内を読まれていたのです。日ソ中立条約延長拒否通告 が、何を意味するかを悟るべきだったのです。

Fumimaro Konoe was having the inside of a hand read by Stalin, the Soviet Union chief secretary who aims at Japan with a vigilant eye . It should be realized what the Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact extension refusal announcement means.

近衛文麿 木戸幸一 らが和平の条件としていたのは、”国体の護持” でした。”国体” とは国の政治形態のこと。そして ”国体の護持” とは、具体的には、”天皇制を現状のまま維持すること”、”今の天皇の罪を問わないこと” です。戦災に苦しむ国民のことなど、念頭に無かったのでしょう。

It was "Uphold the national polity" which Fumimaro Konoe, Kouichi Kido and others were considering as the conditions of peace." "National Polity" is a political form of a country. And "Uphold of National Polity" were specifically "maintaining the Emperor system with the present condition", and "not asking the present Emperor's crime." Probably, there were no people troubled with war devastation in mind.

ただし、こんな和平工作が行なわれていたことは、戦後かなり経ってから知ったことです。このころ、政府や軍は、国民に対して、 「尽忠報国」 「本土決戦」 「一億玉砕」 と叫び続けていました。

However, such a peace move's having been performed is having got to know, after passing considerably after the war. At this time, the government and an army are continuing shouting to people, " Reward Loyalty and Country", " Mainland Decisive Battle", and "All Japanese Peaple Honorable Death."

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元首相・岡田啓介 は、海軍大将ながら、戦前から軍縮を唱え、対米英和平派の常識人でした。そのゆえに、二・二六事件 で命を狙われたのです。

岡田啓介 は、娘婿の内閣書記官長・迫水久常(さこみず ひさつね) を通じて、裏で鈴木内閣を支え、戦後、昭和27年(1952年)、アメリカ軍の日本占領が終わるのを見届けて、85年の生涯を終えました。

Although Keisuke Okada, the former prime minister, was an admiral, he was a plain common-sense man of the peace group for the U.S. and Britain who appealed for disarmament from prewar days. Therefore, the life was aimed at by the February 26th Incident. Keisuke Okada supported the Suzuki Cabinet through son-in-law's Cabinet clerk chief's Hisatsune Sakomizu. After ascertaining that Japanese occupation of the U.S. Forces will finish in 1952 of the postwar period, the whole life for 85 years was finished.

内大臣・木戸幸一 は、戦後の極東国際軍事裁判で、A級戦犯として終身禁固刑となり、昭和30年(1955年)に仮釈放され、昭和52年(1977年)に87歳で死去しました。

Minister Kouichi Kido became life imprisonment as an A-class war criminal by postwar International Military Tribunal for the Far East. He was released on parole in 1955 and died at the age of 87 in 1977.

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