Broadcast by the Emperor's voice ・ Defeat
   Potsdam Declaration acceptance
   The Imperial Council which opted for surrender

日本降伏最終決定のいきさつ です。

It is not my experience to write to 1-2 items of this page. After passing fairly after defeat, they are the circumstances of the Japanese surrender final decision which people got to know.

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戦前の 大日本帝国 の政治形態は、現代とは違って、天皇 が統治する国でした。実際は、天皇 とその周辺の、いわゆる 国の上層部 が決めて、必要なことは国民に命じる、または知らせる、という形をとっていました。
The political form of the great Japan empire of prewar days was a country over which the Emperor reigns unlike the present age. In practice, the Emperor and the so-called upper levels of the country it decided, and it had taken the form where people were ordered or told about a required thing.

昭和20年(1945年)8月広島と長崎への原子爆弾投下ソ連の対日宣戦布告と侵攻、という決定的な打撃を受けて、8月9日の深夜、天皇 臨席での 最高戦争指導会議 が開かれました。

August, 1945. In response to a decisive blow called , atomic bomb dropping to Hiroshima and Nagasaki , anti-Japanese declaration of war of the Soviet Union, and invasion, the Emperor was present at midnight on August 9, and the highest war instruction meeting was held.

この夜の会議では、 「
もはやポツダム宣言を受諾するほかはない」 と言う 東郷外相 と、「ポツダム宣言には、天皇制存続についての保証がない」 と、無条件での受入れに反対する阿南(あなみ)陸相 との意見の相違がありました。

At this meeting of night, there was a difference of opinion with Foreign Minister Togo who says "There is no other way but to accept", and the Anami army minister who is opposed to the acceptance in unconditionedness from the reason "no guarantee about Emperor system continuation is in the Potsdam Declaration."

鈴木首相 に促されて、昭和天皇 は、





Being urged at Prime Minister Suzuki , Emperor Showa said.

if it is right, I will express the opinion of me. I consent to the opinion of the Foreign Minister,."
And the Emperor continued

To the mainland decisive battle which an army says, it is worried. The way things stand, the purport that it is determined to stop war although it is hard to bear that there was a possibility that the Japanese race may be wiped out "

8月10日日本政府 は、 ”国体護持”  を条件に ポツダム宣言を受諾する 旨、中立国を経て アメリカ に通告。翌11日連合国側は、



On August 10, the Japanese government is on condition of "Uphold the national polity" . Notice of accepting the Potsdam Declaration was given to the United States via the neutral nation. As for the Allies side, It has answered on following the 11th

"Regime of Japan is determined by the Japanese's intention ."
"The supreme power of the Emperor or the Japanese government is subordinate to Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers from the surrender time."

この回答を受けて、また、 ”国体護持”  の論議が蒸し返されました。陸軍強硬派は  ”国体護持”  が保証されなければ、ポツダム宣言 は受諾できないとして、クーデターも辞さない構えを見せました。

Argument of " Uphold the national polity " was repeated in response to this reply again. If "Uphold the national polity" was not guaranteed to army hard-liners, an intention to say that the Potsdam Declaration cannot be accepted and not also resign a coup d'etat was shown.

The Imperial Council which opted for
the Potsdam Declaration acceptance (picture)

天皇 の名で宣戦して始めた戦争を、軍や国民が納得する形で終わらせるには、天皇 にさらなる聖断を下してもらうほかはない ”

として、8月14日、再び 御前会議 を招集しました。

Peace groups including Prime Minister Suzuki,

"There is no other way but for the Emperor to have once again finishing war which declared war in the name of the Emperor, and was begun in the form to which an army and people are convinced. "

It carried out and called the Imperial Council again on August 14.

ここでも、また、和平派と軍部とで意見が分かれました。鈴木首相 は、天皇 に最終決断を求めました。昭和天皇 は
ポツダム宣言全面受諾 を明言し、


と発言しました。これで 戦争終結のすべてが決定 されました。

The opinions with a peace group and the military authorities were divided also here again. Prime Minister Suzuki asked the Emperor for the final decision. Emperor Showa declares complete acceptance of the Potsdam Declaration, And he spoke,
In order to call to people, I also stands in front of a microphone."

All the conclusions of war were determined this time.

同日付で、終戦の詔書 が発布されました。詔書8月10日以後、内閣書記官長・迫水久常 らがひそかに作成していました。

The Imperial rescript of the end of the war was promulgated with the same day. The Cabinet clerk chief's Hisatsune Sakomizu and others was drawing up the Imperial rescript secretly on and after August 10.

昭和天皇 の肉声の 詔書朗読 の録音は、この日の深夜、宮中の 天皇執務室 で行なわれ、録音レコード2枚は厳重に保管されました。

Recording of Imperial rescript reading of Emperor's Showa voice was performed at the Emperor work room in the Imperial Palace at midnight of this day, and two recording records were kept severely.

外務省はすぐに、スイス スェーデン の日本公使館経由で、 ”
ポツダム宣言受諾”  を連合国側に通告しました。しかし、8月14日の時点では、まだ日本国民には何も知らされませんでした。

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs gave notice of "
the Potsdam Declaration acceptance" to the Allies side via the Japanese legation in Switzerland and Sweden immediately. However, as of August 14, nothing was told to the Japanese people yet.

    General Tanaka suppresses a coup d'etat.

昭和20年(1945年)8月15日未明、ポツダム宣言全面受諾 と、玉音放送(ぎょくおんほうそう) の情報が、どこからか、陸軍の戦争遂行派に洩れました。

It became before dawn on August 15, 1945, and information that broadcast by the voice of the Emperor of Potsdam Declaration complete acceptance is performed leaked to the army war execution group.
general Shizuichi Tanaka

近衛師団所属の一部の戦争遂行派青年将校らは、玉音放送 を阻止して、戦争継続内閣を立てるクーデターを計画しました。そして、制止する近衛師団長を殺害し、偽の師団長命令を発して、近衛連隊の一部を率いて、皇居内に乱入しました。

Some war execution group youth officers belonging to the Imperial Guard Division planned the coup d'etat noting that they would prevent the radio broadcast by the Emperor's voice and would look up to the war continuation Cabinet. And the Divisional commander which controls it was murdered the fake divisional commander command was emitted, some Imperial-Guards regiments were commanded, and it intruded into the Imperial Palace.

田中静壱(たなか しずいち)陸軍大将 は、このクーデターに対処するために、直ちに皇居に乗り込んで、若手将校らを説得、鎮圧しました。

In order to prevent this coup d'etat,
Shizuichi Tanaka, full general of the eastern part army area commander who got to know an Imperial-Guards regiment's rebellion action showed up in the Imperial Palace immediately, persuaded young officers, and suppressed action.

録音盤奪取に失敗したクーデター部隊は、内幸町の 放送会館(現在のNHK) を襲って占拠しましたが、ここでも東部軍首脳に説得され、鎮圧されました。

The coup-d'etat unit who failed in record capture attacked and occupied the broadcast hall (present NHK) in inner Saiwai-cho. However, it was persuaded and suppressed by the head of the eastern part army also here

クーデター部隊の別働隊は、首相官邸 と 鈴木首相 の自宅を襲撃、さらに枢密院議長・平沼騏一郎邸、内大臣・木戸幸一邸、東久邇宮(ひがしくにのみや)邸、などを襲い放火しました。鈴木首相 は、辛うじて官邸を脱出し、無事でした。木戸幸一 は、皇居内に隠れていました。

A coup-d'etat unit's detached force is the Prime Minister's official residence and Prime Minister Suzuki. The house was attacked. Furthermore, Kichiro Hiranuma's residence of the Lord President of the Council, Kouichi Kido's residence , Higashikuninomiya's residence, etc. were attacked, and fire was set to them. Prime Minister Suzuki escaped from the official residence barely, and he was safe. Kouichi Kido was hiding in the Imperial Palace.

クーデターを起こした若手将校たちは、二人を残して自決。これと同じころ、陸軍大臣・阿南惟幾(あなみこれちか) は、自宅で割腹自殺を遂げました。

The young officers who started the coup d'etat left and did self-decision of the two persons. Korechika Anami, the army minister, disemboweled himself at the house at the same time as this.

玉音放送 の録音盤は、運ぶ途中での襲撃を警戒して、偽物まで用意され、本物はこっそりと、無事に放送会館まで運ばれたそうです。玉音放送 を阻止しようとした戦争遂行派青年将校らのクーデターは、
田中大将 率いる東部軍の手で鎮圧されました。

It is said that the attack in the middle of carrying the record of Emperor's voice broadcast is looked out for, imitation is prepared, and the genuine article was secretly carried to the broadcast hall safely.Thus, the coup d'etat of the war execution group youth officers who tried to prevent broadcast by Emperor's voice was suppressed by the hand of the eastern part army led by
General Tanaka.

しかし、アメリカ軍先遣隊や マッカーサー 到着間近の8月24日になって、少数の徹底抗戦派残党が、川口放送所を襲って、ラジオを通じて徹底抗戦を呼びかけようとしました。いわゆる 川口放送所占拠事件 です。.

However, it became on August 24 [ of a U.S. Forces advance team or MacArthur ] of arrive nearness, and a small number of do-or-die resistance group remnants tried to attack the Kawaguchi broadcast place, and appeal for do-or-die resistance through radio. It is what is called a Kawaguchi broadcast place occupation incident.

田中大将 は、関東配電(現・東京電力)に指示して、川口放送所への送電を停止させ、自ら現地へ乗り込んで、天皇 の命に反する行為の愚かさを説いて、鎮圧、解散させました。この事件で、関東一円のラジオ放送は、9時間停波したそうです。

General Tanaka
who has perceived this pointed to the Kanto power distribution (expression and Tokyo Electric Power), and he stopped power transmission to the Kawaguchi broadcast place. And the foolishness of the act which shows up in a spot and is opposed to a command of the Emperor was explained and suppressed. That's right bottom the radio broadcast of the Kanto whole place stopped at this incident for 9 hours.

田中大将 は、この陸軍最期の反乱を鎮圧したのち、川口放送所の所長宅を訪れて、放送を止めたことについて詫びの言葉を述べました。それから東部軍管区司令部へ戻り、従容として拳銃で自決しました。享年57歳でした。

General Tanaka who suppressed the rebellion of this army last moment returned to eastern part army area headquarters, he made it composed and did self-decision with the handgun.
They were 57 years old of age at death

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田中静壱陸軍大将 顕彰碑(祖国日本・ふるさと日本より
)The celebration monument of General Tanaka
田中静壱陸軍大将 は、私の義兄の伯父で、兵庫県揖保郡揖西村(現・たつの市)の出身。


昭和7年(1932年)から、アメリカ駐在陸軍武官 としてワシントンD.C.にいて、当時アメリカ陸軍参謀総長だった マッカーサー とも親交がありました。

Shizuichi Tanaka full general is my brother's-in-law uncle。
Since he graduated from a military academy and the Militery Staff College with honors, the favor of the British Oxford university studying abroad was able to be given. He was in Washington, D.C. as a U.S. residence army military officer from 1932, and was intimate also with MacArthur who was the U.S. chief of army staff those days.

日中戦争では中国戦線を転戦、アメリカ と開戦後は、フィリピン 平定中の司令官を勤め、戦争末期には、東部軍管区司令官 として、東日本の本土防衛を担う役目につきました。

In Sino-Japanese War, it played in the China battle line and after the outbreak of war with the United States worked the commander under Philippines suppression. It was attached to the duty which bears the homeland defense of East Japan as an eastern part army area commander in the last stage the end of war.

政治に関わることなく、陸軍の派閥に与(くみ)することなく、軍人としての職務を全うし、最後には、昭和天皇 を守って、玉音放送 による戦争終結を無事に済ませることに貢献しました。田中大将 の郷里、兵庫県たつの市には、大将の遺徳を称える顕彰碑が建てられています。

General Tanaka fulfilled the job as a military man, without constructing and using an army faction, without being concerned with politics. In the last, he is Emperor Showa. It contributed to protecting and finishing the conclusion of war by Emperor Showa's broadcast safely. The celebration monument which praises a general's virtue of the deceased is built in Hyogo Tatsuno-shi of its home town of General Tanaka.

    Broadcast of the Emperor's voice is heard.
    The day of defeat

昭和天皇(出典 Wikipedia) Emperor Showa
昭和20年(1945年)8月15日、この日、私は引き続き滋賀県の S農場 にいました。よく晴れた暑い日でした。 朝からラジオは、正午に 重大放送 があるので、国民すべてが聴くようにと、何回も放送していました。天皇 が自らラジオで国民に話される、ということも伝えていました。

August 15, 1945. I was also in S farm in Shiga Prefecture succeedingly. It was the hot, well fine day.
It was being broadcast repeatedly that all people needed to listen to it from a morning since radio has serious broadcast at noon..

午前中の仕事を早めに済ませて、ラジオを農場宿舎の窓際に置き、K農場長 を先頭に、農場で働く人全員が整列して放送が始まるのを待ちました。

It waited for those all that finish the work during the morning a little early, put radio on the place by the window of farm lodgings, and commit K farm foreman at the head at a farm to line up, and for broadcast to start.

最初にアナウンサーが起立を求め、情報局総裁が、天皇陛下 自らの放送であると説明し、それから、”君が代”が鳴った と記憶しています。それから、いよいよ、昭和天皇の詔書朗読 が始まりました。みな、頭を下げて聴き入りました。

Announcer asked for standing up first and the President of the Information Board explained that it was the broadcast of His Majesty the Emperor himself. .And it is remembered that national anthem" Kimigayo" sounded
. And reading of Emperor's Showa Imperial rescript started still more. Everybody bowed and listened attentively.


本土決戦に勝利するために、国民はもっと励め、と言われたんやろ」 と皆が思って、それぞれの休憩室に戻りました。

However, the noise of the record was severe and the language with the Emperor's voice difficult on it with a sound for which it prays and which sounded hollow was mostly contained. Moreover, the radio of the farm was also an article with much noise. For those reasons, nobody found what the Emperor was said after all.

Everybody thought, "Probably, His Majesty the Emperor was said that people need to endeavor more in order that may defeat enemy in mainland decisive battle", and returned to each lobby.

その後、私一人、宿舎でラジオ放送の続きを聴いていました。すると、天皇 の放送のあと、政府声明 とか 内閣告諭 とかいう言葉があり、「
四国共同宣言を受諾するに至った」 とか 「戦争を終えることになった」 とか、いう言葉が聴き取れました

Only I was hearing the continuation of a radio broadcast after that in the lodgings of the farm. Then, there is language, such as a government and Cabinet statement, after the Emperor's broadcast, and it was able to catch the word of "it having come to accept the Potsdam Declaration", "war being finished", etc.

People who hear broadcast by urban burnt remains
私は農場の事務所に走って行って、K農場長 にこのことを告げました。K農場長 は、すぐに自転車で警察署へ走り、しばらくして険しい顔をして戻って来ました。そして、従業員全員を再度呼び集め、

 「先ほどの 天皇陛下 の放送は、日本 アメリカ など連合国の宣言を受入れ、戦争を終えることになった、といわれたのだ


I ran to the office of a farm and told K farm foreman this.
K farm foreman ran to the police station by the bicycle immediately, wore the steep face after a while, and has returned. And all employees are called together again,

Broadcast of the His Majesty the Emperor like the point was said for Japan to accept declaration of the American Allies and to finish war."

It talked.

だれもが、”戦争を終える” とは、どういうことなのか、しばらくは理解できないでいました。 戦争に負けたのだ、降参したのだ、 と分かると、全員に動揺が走りました。

It carried out now without being able to understand for a while what kind of thing "for which war is finished" it is, although it also became bored. When it turned out that it lost and surrendered to war, agitation ran to all the members.

午後3時ごろ、姉が京都から農場へ来て、とりあえず、家へ帰るよう私に言いました。私はK農場長 にお礼を述べ、荷物をまとめて、姉と共に、夕方、京都 に帰り着きました。

The elder sister came to the farm from Kyoto around 3:00 p.m., and it did not dress for me, but said "Go home." I told K farm foreman gratitude, packed the load, and came back to Kyoto with my elder sister in the evening.

京阪電車・五条駅 に降りて、あたりを見渡しました。見上げれば、緑豊かな東山、振り返れば、鴨川の流れと五条大橋、これらは昔と変わらない景色。

The newspaper of the day of
the defeat on August 15, 1945
しかし、見下ろせば、いちめん荒れた建物疎開のあと。 「国敗れて山河あり」 とは、今のような気持ちを詠んだものかと思いました。

It got down to Gojo Station of the Keihan train, and overlooked the hit. If it looks up, it will be rich green Higashiyama. If it turns round, they will be a flow of Kamo liver, and Gojo bridge. These are scenes which are not different from ancient times. .However, after the building evacuation were ruined when looking down,



"It was released from fear of the air raid. Kyoto did not need to suffer a massive air raid. However, what happens after this?"

I was 16 years old , and had big uneasy feeling at this time.

家へ帰って、新聞に見入りました。この日は、新聞の朝刊が午後になってから配達されたということです。 一面は 終戦の詔書 とその解説、裏を返すと、新型爆弾 が
原子爆弾 であること、そして、投下された広島・長崎の惨状が、全面を使って掲載されていました。

I went home and it stared at the newspaper. It is said that it was delivered after the newspaper morning paper became an afternoon on that day. The surface was the Imperial rescript and description of the end of the war, and when the reverse side was returned, the tragic state of that a new style bomb is an
atomic bomb, and Hiroshima and Nagasaki which were dropped was published using the whole space.


This day was a day which divided modern age and the present age of Japan. And all of the old view of life and view of the world, a national view, a sense of values, etc. were reversed, and it became the day when Japan and a world reversed.

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