Defeat processing ・ army, Emperor, currency
    斎藤隆夫登壇 ・ 日本陸軍、謝罪と解体を表明
    Takao Saito's speech
   Japanese army expresses apology and demolition.

戦前、戦中に、身の危険を冒して、陸軍に対し、粛軍演説反戦演説を行なった 斎藤隆夫衆議院議員 が、帝国議会衆議院本会議の演壇に立ちました。

November 28, 1945. Takao Saito, member of the House of Representatives who ran the risk of the body during prewar days and the war, and performed the speech which rebukes the army and the antiwar speech to the army stood on the platform of the Lower House plenary session of the Imperial Diet.

(出典 Wikipedia)
Takao Saito
(出典 Wikipedia)
Sadamu Shimomura
そして、最後の陸軍大臣・下村 定(しもむら さだむ) に、日本で軍国主義が発達した理由について、見解をただしました。

And the stripes of the view about a reason that militarism progressed in Japan were merely carried out to Sadamu Shimomura, the last army minister.

これに対して、幣原内閣の陸軍大臣・下村 定は、以下のように答弁しました。




陸軍は解体を致します。 過去の罪責に対しまして、私共は今後、事実をもってお詫び申し上げること、事実をもって罪をつぐなうことは出来ませぬ。


Sadamu Shimomura, the army minister of the Shidehara Cabinet, answered as follows.

"Those who the person inside army mistakes the view of the right thing as a military man about generating of militarism, and are in the status of instruction think that it is the origin that the way was bad.
This produces internal and external various situations and a complicated relation, and a certain person regards a certain person as there having been those who took advantaging of vigor and did the self-righteous and tyrannical deed against the background of the power of the army again. Especially the thing that is not allowed was the unjust political intervention of the army.
These having become a serious cause and having brought a present sad state to the state does not have explanation truly. I apologize to you, whole nations, from the bottom of my heart about this point through Parliament in the army last.
Japanese army is disassembled. To the past crime, having a fact and apologizing cannot have a fact, either and we cannot atone for a crime, either.
Very regrettably, as it appeals to sympathy of you, the people from the former, and was also on Mr. Saito's question now for the sin of the past of this army, I ask you eagerly to give me so deep sympathy to the soul of the person killed in war of not blotting out a loyal military man's distinguished services, and many

            * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

斎藤隆夫 は、戦前の 粛軍演説、戦中の 反戦演説、そしてこの、敗戦後の陸軍に対して 反省を求める演説 と、終始一貫、軍をたしなめ続けました。国民の代表たる衆議院議員として、命を懸けての論説の展開でした。

During the speech which rebukes the army of prewar days, the antiwar speech during the war and this speech which asks for the reflection on the army after this defeat is made by Takao Saito. It is consistent, and rebuking an army was continued The editorial was developed, having risked its life as a member of the House of Representatives as a national representative.

その後、斎藤隆夫 は、昭和21年(1946年)に第一次吉田内閣の国務大臣として入閣し、行政調査部総裁となります。次の 片山内閣 でも、行政調査部総裁を続けました。衆議院議員当選13回。昭和24年死去、享年80歳でした.斎藤隆夫の出身地・兵庫県豊岡市出石町には、斎藤隆夫の威徳をしのぶ “静思堂” が建てられています。

After that, Takao Saito entered the Cabinet as the State Minister of the first Yoshida Cabinet in 1946, became the President of an administrative count part, and did. The President of an administrative count part was continued also at the next Katayama Cabinet. Member of the House of Representatives success in an election is 13 times. He died in 1949, 80 years old of age at death.. "Seishidou" which bears Takao Saito's virtue is built in Izushicho Toyooka, Hyogo prefecture of Takao Saito's hometown.

下村 定は、高知県出身。陸軍士官学校で 東久邇宮稔彦王 と同期生。東久邇内閣 と 幣原内閣 で陸軍大臣を務めました。その後、昭和34年(1959年)6月に参議院全国区から立候補して当選、6年間参議院議員 を務め、昭和43年(1968年)3月、交通事故で死去。享年80歳でした。

    Renunciation of divinity by Emperor Showa
And a national Imperial tour was begun.

昭和21年 (1946年) 1月1日、新年にあたって、昭和天皇 詔書 を出しました。

Hitting in the new year on January 1, 1946, Emperor Showa is an Imperial rescript. It took out.

この 詔書 にはとくに題名は無かったとのことですが、一般には ”天皇の人間宣言” とか ”神格否定の詔書” と言われています。そして、その中に 「(ちん・天皇の第一人称)ハ神ニアラズ」 と書いてあるという人もいました。しかし、”天皇の人間宣言” というのは、マスコミが勝手に書いた言葉のようです。

Although there was no title in particular in this Imperial rescript, generally it is called "Imperial rescript of therenunciation of divinity of the Emperor". And there was also a person of having written "I am not God" in it. However, "the Emperor's renunciation of divinity by emperor" was the language which mass media wrote freely.

この 詔書 はかなりの長文で、その中の


との部分を指して、”天皇が神格を否定した” と言ったようです。


     「これは 幣原内閣 が書いたのやろ。そして後ろには、GHQ がいるのやろ

と言っていました。この 詔書 の出た日に、マッカーサー は、この 詔書 に満足の意を表明しました。

Although I asked the person detailed in neighboring politics,

"Probably, the Shidehara Cabinet wrote this Imperial rescript. And probably, behind that, GHQ is needed."

It had said. MacArthur expressed mind satisfied with this Imperial rescript on the day out of which this Imperial rescript came.

詔書 の全文は、小さい字で新聞に掲載されていましたが、一字一句読む気がしませんでした。実際そのころの我々は、明日の食べ物の確保だけで頭がいっぱい。正直な話、もうそんなことはどうでもよいという気持ちでした。

The whole sentence of the Imperial rescript was not felt like reading every word although published with the small character at the newspaper. Because we at the time were actually full of the head only by reservation of tomorrow's food. Such a thing has already been the feeling that it is good anyhow.

私がこの 詔書 の全文を読んだのは、しばらく経ってからのことです。この 詔書 は  ”新日本建設に関する詔書” とも呼ばれていたと思います。「朕ハ神ニアラズ」 というような文言はありませんでした。

It was after that I read the whole sentence of this Imperial rescript passes for a while. I think that this Imperial rescript was also called "the Imperial rescript about New Japan." There was no word "I am not God."

全文を読んでみて、率直に言って唖然としました。全文は最後に掲載しますが、わずか4年前に、国民に対して 「全力ヲ振ッテ交戦ニ従事セヨ」 との 詔書 を出した人が、今度は 「官民擧ゲテ平和主義ニ徹セヨ」 と、どうして言えるのか、と思いました。

The whole sentence was read and, to speak frankly, it was stunned. Although whole sentence of the Imperial rescript is published at the end, .I thought why the person who took out the Imperial rescript with "Using the best and engaged in war"to people only four years ago could say as "All people need to become pacifism" shortly.

壇上に立つ昭和天皇(1947年 広島 出典Wikipedia)
Emperor Showa who stands on the platform
(1947 Hiroshima)
(1949年 久留米 出典Wikipedia)
Emperor Showa who responds
to welcome (1949 Kurume )
昭和天皇 は、この年、昭和21年(1946年)の2月から、神奈川県を手始めに、各地の 巡幸 を始めました。巡幸 は次第に遠くへと、昭和24年(1949年)ごろまで続いた、と記憶しています。

Emperor Showa The Imperial tour of every place was first begun for Kanagawa Prefecture from February, 1946. It is remembered that the Imperial tour continued to a distance gradually till around 1949.

私は、戦前に 昭和天皇 を見ていますが、地方の人たちにとっては、直接に天皇を見ることなど無かったので、各地で歓迎されました。しかし、壇上で演説をするというようなことはなかったようです。

Although I was looking at Emperor Showa at prewar days, since the Emperor was not seen directly, for local people, he was welcomed in various places. However, it was not said that a speech is made on the platform.



The photograph of the Emperor and the Empress was hung up over almost all the houses in Japan prewar days and during the war. It had hung also on my wall in front of an alcove or house. My father said in the autumn of 1945 that he removed and murmured the frame containing the photograph. It is,

    ".This person was a useless person although Emperor Meiji was great. "

明治に生まれ、苦労して店を持ち、いくばくかの資産もできて、これから楽をしようという年齢になって、無謀な戦争のために商売もできなくなり、食べる物にも事欠く世の中になって、父はすっかり気落ちしていました。そして、「しばらく郷里へ帰ってくる」 と言って、田舎の実家に行ってしまいました。

My father bore and took pains over Meiji, opened the store, and stored property. And when it became the age when a life easy from now on will be carried out, it was forced the life which the thing which trade also became impossible for a reckless war, and also it eats also runs short of. Therefore, he was disappointed completely. And he said, "I go back to the home villege for a while", and has gone to the country parents' home.

            * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

昭和天皇の ”神格否定の詔書” といわれている、昭和21年(1946年)1月1日の詔書 を、以下に掲載します。










      Financial Emergency Measures Ordinance
    The deposit old Yen blockade ・ New Yen issue

昭和21年(1946年)2月17日、幣原内閣は、突然、金融緊急措置令なるものを発表しました。このときの 金融緊急措置令 とは、それまでの紙幣の 流通停止新紙幣の発行預貯金の封鎖(モラトリアム ・支払猶予) という、通貨切り替え、金融資産差し押さえ政策です。

The Shidehara Cabinet announced to suddenly Financial Emergency Measures Ordinance on February 17, 1946. Financial Emergency Measures Ordinance at this time was the measure of circulation of the bill till then being stopped, a new bill having been published, and deposits and savings having repaid, and blocking (moratorium and grace of payment). They were the change of currency, and a seizure policy of financial assets.

旧十円札 (和気清麻呂像) 昭和21年
old 10 yen bill
新十円札 (国会議事堂図)・昭和21年
new 10 yen bill, Diet Building figure
表向きの目的は、物資不足に伴う急激な物価上昇(ハイパーインフレ)を押さえるため、とされていましたが、続いて実施された 財産税 課税のための準備措置でもありました。

Although it was presupposed that it was the ostensible purpose for pressing down the rapid price increase (hyperinflation) accompanying the shortage of goods, it was also a preparation measure for the imposition of the property tax continued and carried out.


The bills which it has moreover a householder can pull out only about 300 yen and 100 yen to one family per household in one month, although it is its deposits and savings are monetary measures which will be surprised if it sees from the present time when it cannot use from the day.

(出典 Wikipedia)
Exchange of the old and new bill
at the bank window
それまででも、銀行の倒産で自分の預金が出せなくなった、ということはありました。でも、それは、ひとつの銀行だけのこと。金融緊急措置令 による 預金封鎖 は、日本の政府による、全国民の全預貯金の差し押さえなのです。

It might be said that it became impossible to pay one's deposit by bankruptcy of a bank but till then. But it was only one bank. The blockade of the deposit by Financial Emergency MeasuresOrdinance was seizure of all the deposits and savings of the whole nation by the Japanese government.

新しい紙幣は印刷が間に合わないので、代わりに 証紙という、今の収入印紙の小型のようなものが新紙幣の代わりに渡され、旧紙幣にこの 証紙 を貼ったものだけが通用を認められました。証紙 を貼っていない旧紙幣は、無価値になるというので、預金せざるを得なくなりました。

Since printing did not meet the deadline, a new bill was substituted.It is passed instead of a thing of a present revenue stamp called an inspection sticker which is small being a new bill, and the old bill is this inspection sticker. Only what was stuck was able to accept popular use. The old bill which has not stuck the inspection sticker only had depositing because it will become worthless.


The certificate of the school was required although the deposit drawer was accepted about the tuition of the school aside from the amount of a drawer per household.

この措置で ハイパーインフレ は一時的に抑えられましたが、すぐに再発して、物価はさらに上がってゆきました。

Although hyperinflation was temporarily stopped with this measure, it recurred immediately and prices further went up.

封鎖預金 は、通帳や証書の金額によって、第一封鎖預金 第二封鎖預金 とに分けられました。第二封鎖預金 は解除までの期間がさらに長くなり、実質的にはほとんどが返還されずに終わりました。

The deposit moratorium was divided into the first deposit moratorium and the second deposit moratorium by the amount of money of a passbook or a bond. As for the second deposit moratorium, the period to release became still longer, and most was not returned substantially.


Has the person of the present time considered the situation where their deposits and savings cannot be drawn out?

預貯金封鎖期間は何年も続いたと記憶しています。そして封鎖が解除されたときには、ハイパーインフレ によって物価が暴騰していて、国民が戦前から蓄えてきた預貯金資産は、国債などとともに、無価値同然になっていました。この 金融緊急措置令 による 預金封鎖 で、もっとも深刻な被害を受けたのは、もはや働いて新円を稼ぐことのできない老年者たちでした。

It is remembered that it continued during the deposits-and-savings blockade for many years. And when a blockade was canceled, the deposits-and-savings property which prices have jumped suddenly and people have stored since prewar days by hyperinflation was worthlessly same with the national bond etc. The aged persons who cannot work and cannot earn a new yen suffered the most serious damage from the blockade of the deposit by this Financial Emergency Measures Ordinance.

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