Death is a neighbor of life
Hyperinflation advance ・ Aged person's suicide continues

昭和21年(1946年)10月8日、吉田内閣は 復興金融公庫法 を公布し、復興金融公庫 という全額政府出資の金融機関が10月25日から急遽開業しました。復興金融公庫 とは、第二次世界大戦敗戦後の復興のために、全額政府出資で設立した銀行です。

The Yoshida Cabinet is a reconstruction finance financial corporation low on October 8, 1946. It proclaimed and the financial institution of a total amount government subscription called a reconstruction finance financial corporation started business from October 25 hurriedly. The reconstruction finance financial corporation was the bank founded by the government subscription in total for revival after the defeat in World War II.

復興金融公庫 は、経済復興のために必要な基幹産業、石炭・鉄鋼・電力にしぼって資金を供給し、復興に大きく貢献したのですが、そのために通貨が大幅に増発され、インフレーション(インフレ・物価騰貴) をいっそう加速しました。預金封鎖新円切替えでもインフレは収まらず、この 復興金融公庫 への融資が通貨価値を下げ、物価をさらに高騰させました。

The reconstruction finance financial corporation was extracted to the coal, steel, and electric power of the key industry required for economic revival, supplied funds, and contributed to revival greatly. However, therefore, the issue of currency was increased sharply and inflation was accelerated further. Although inflation was not settled even if it performed the deposit blockade and the new circle change, the loan to this reconstruction finance financial corporation demoted the currency value, and prices further soared.

The present Development Bank of Japan head office

The Japanese government floated the national bond and debenture of the immense frame, and made people and a financial institution buy it compulsorily as a matter of fact in wartime. The frame was 9 times the finances of the country.

戦時中はきびしい統制経済をしいて、物価上昇を抑えていましたが、敗戦で統制の仕組みが崩壊し、闇市 などの黙認によって、インフレ が一気に表面化しました。敗戦直後の昭和20年(1945年)10月から昭和24年(1949年)4月までの、3年半の間の 物価上昇率 は、およそ100倍。こんな猛烈な物価上昇が、ハイパーインフレーション(超インフレ)です。

Although the severe controlled economy was performed in wartime and the price increase was suppressed, the structure of control collapsed by defeat and inflation surfaced at a stretch by tacit permission of a black market etc. The price increase rate between three years and a half from October, 1945 immediately after defeat to April, 1949 was about 100. Such a violent price increase is hyperinflation .

値段がいち早く上がったのは米などの食糧、もつとも遅かったのは公共料金でした。その後も インフレ はありましたが、こんなすごい倍率ではありません。ハイパーインフレ の原因は戦災による物資不足が根本ですが、通貨増発 がこれに輪をかけました。

It was a public utility charge that was the latest with food, such as rice, as for the price having gone up promptly. Although there was inflation also after that, it is not such uncanny magnification. Although the shortage of goods according [ the cause of hyperinflation ] to war devastation was the origin, the currency extra train raised this further.

復興金融公庫 の資金は全額政府出資、といっても、当時の政府にそれに見合う財源があるわけではなく、実態は日本銀行による 新円(新しい通貨)紙幣 の増発でまかなったので、通貨価値はいっそう下落していったのです。世間では、この インフレ を “復金インフレ” と呼びました。

Although the total of fund of the reconstruction finance financial corporation was a government subscription, the government of those days does not have a source of revenue corresponding to it, and it provided the actual condition with the extra train of the new currency bill by the Bank of Japan. Then, the currency value fell further.

復興金融公庫 から融資を受けた産業は、それで息を吹き返しましたが、関係のない庶民は、ただただ生活に困るばかりでした。とくに、働いて収入を得られない高年者所帯は、この 復金インフレ で、生活継続にとどめを刺されることになりました。

Although the industry which took out the loan from the reconstruction finance financial corporation fetched its breath by it, unrelated people were just merely troubled by the life. The aged person in particular that works and cannot get an income stopped being continuation about a life for this inflation.

私の家の近所に、戦前から茶葉の卸小売で繁盛していた店がありましたが、家屋強制疎開 で店も家も失い、二人の息子は出征して、弟は戦死、兄は安否不明 でした。老夫婦は裏長屋の古い家を借りて住んでいましたが、ある日、二人とも首吊り自殺しているのが見つかりました。

although the store which was prosperous by wholesale retail of tea leaves from prewar days was located in the neighborhood of my house, lose a store and the house in house enforced evacuation, two sons go to war, and a younger son was killed in war, safety of elder son was unknown. Although the old couple borrowed the old house of the row house along a back alley and lived, it was found that both persons have hanged themselves one day.

こういう悲しく哀れな例は、各所でありました。敗戦によって世の中が乱れ、ハイパーインフレ が起こって、最も被害を受けたのは、生活弱者・体力弱者 の老人でした。

Such sad examples were every place. The old man of a disadvantaged person and the physical strength weak suffered damage most from the hyperinflation which the world was in disorder and happened by defeat.

老人の自殺 は、庶民だけではありませんでした。三笠宮崇仁(たかひと)親王妃(旧名・高木百合子)の父・高木正得(たかぎまさなり) 元子爵 は、華族制度廃止で落魄(らくはく)し、昭和23年(1948年)7月、遺書を残して失踪(しっそう)、同年11月に、奥多摩の山中で白骨死体となって見つかりました。

An old man's suicide was not only plebeian. Masanari Takagi, profitable former viscount and the father of Princess Yuriko Mikasanomiya's (old name Yuriko Takagi) father was ruined in aristocracy abolition, left the will and disappeared in July, 1948. It became a bleached-bones body and was found in Okutama in November of the same year.

高木元子爵 の遺書には、爵位の剥奪 や インフレ による生活苦がつづられていました。生活能力のない 元華族 が、敗戦後の混乱と ハイパーインフレ の社会に放り出されて、死を選んだ悲劇でした。

In a Masanari Takagi viscount's will, it is deprivation and inflation of peerage. The difficulty of living to depend was spelled. Confusion and hyperinflation after the former nobility without life capability being defeated. It was the tragedy which was thrown up to society and chose death.

            * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

復興金融公庫 は、昭和26年(1951年)4月日本開発銀行に受け継がれ、平成11年(1999年)10月になって 日本政策投資銀行 が設立され、日本開発銀行の事業を引き継ぎました。その後、日本政策投資銀行 は株式会社になりましたが、全額政府出資という点は変わっていません。

The reconstruction finance financial corporation was inherited by the Japan Development Bank in April, 1951. October, 1999 came, Development Bank of Japan was founded, and the enterprise of the Japan Development Bank was taken over. Although this policy investment bank became incorporated company later, the point of a total amount government subscription has not changed.

     Mother's death ・・・ Death is a neighbor of life.


My mother passed away on December 17, 1946. Till three days before, it complained of the stomachache to having made it common suddenly, and died after only two days and a half. She was 58 years old of age at death.

以前からときどき腹痛を起こし、胆石症 との診断を受けて薬を服用していたのですが、このころは、まだ医療診断機器もなく、手術も出来るような時代ではありませんでした。

Although the stomachache was sometimes started from before and medicine was taken in response to diagnosis with cholelithiasis, it was the last time that would not still have medical diagnostics apparatus and whose operation would be possible recently.

このとき、私は未成年の18歳。の突然の死は大きなショックでした。58歳という年齢は、当時としては、それほど ”若死に” ということではありませんでしたが、日本 がどん底の時代、充分な医療措置を受けられなかったのが残念でした

At this time, I was 18 years old of minority. The mother's sudden death was a big shock. Although the age of 58 years old was not early death so much as that time, since Japan was a time of the bottom, it was regrettable that sufficient medical measure was not able to be received.

落ち込んでいる私に、お寺の Y住職 は、左のような七五調の詩を教えました。これは、ただ の死を悲しむ歌ではなく、


という教えの言葉だ、と言われました。私は、「が死んだ」 と言って泣いている場合ではない、と思いました。

Y chief priest of the temple taught depressed me the poetry of 7-5 cadence like the left. This is not a poem which merely laments a mother's death,

 "Live firmly the last process in which it dies, and the meantime, with life."

It was said that it was the language of the instruction to say. I thought that I was not a case where say, "My mother died" and cry.

の死で、私以上に落ち込んだのは、でした。預金封鎖財産税 ハイパーインフレ で、気落ちして、体力も衰えているうえに、さらに襲った悲しみでした。

The father was disappointed more than me in the mother's death. It was the further attacked sadness in which was disappointed in a deposit blockade, a property tax, or hyperinflation, and physical strength has also declined.


The easy funeral was performed by three persons with brother and sister. The way where a future it progresses with the recollection to mother was considered, looking at the smoke which rises from the chimney of a crematory.


My mother was born and grew up in the house which is not rich in Kyoto. Care of the live-in salesclerk who bore eight children, having married te my father and striving for trade, and always loosened five persons was also taken, and it was life with many difficulties. Since it was warring when the child grew and room was made also economically, difficulties did not cease.

しかし、預金封鎖 や 財産税 で落胆している に比べて、敗戦後も はむしろ楽天的でした。は常々、


と、言っていました。 の死に顔は、とても穏やかでした。

However, compared with the father disappointed in the deposit blockade or the property tax, the
mother was optimistic rather even after defeat. My mother had said always as follows.

"Most things currently counted on separate. This world is hell if there are hell and paradise. Pleasant thing is one or two and a hard sad thing has 100 and 200 in this world."

mother's dead face was very quiet.

            * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


The present age and almost all persons die in a hospital. Probably, there are few people who die while a hand is grasped by children on the tatami of a house. The cause, "there is nothing regardless of hearing and cooking the talk that people die etc. When writing such subject, there was also a person of disliking all and stopping reading a homepage." It is the time when every play and play are in fashion focusing on a young person, now.

しかし、私は戦争も敗戦も経験し、両親・兄姉・親族 の幾つもの臨終にも接して来ました。上に掲載したお寺の Y住職 の詩のとおり、”人生は常に死と隣り合わせ” という気持ちが離れません。

However, I experienced war and defeat and am in contact also with the last moment of many, parents, brothers and sisters, or relatives. The feeling "life is always next to death" does not separate as the poetry of Y chief priest of the temple published upwards.

     Showa Nankai earthquake
    The big earthquake of the time of a bottom

Housing collapse in Kochi according to
the Nankai big earthquake

Kochi by the Nankai big earthquake
Housing collapse of Hoei-cho
母 の葬儀から2日後の、昭和21年(1946年)12月21日の未明、二階で寝ていた私は、家がきしむ大きな揺れで、眼が覚めました。2年前の 東南海地震 のときと同じような、とても大きい揺れです。「また、大地震だ ! 」 と直感して、うつむきに体を丸めて、布団にもぐりました。

I who was sleeping on the second floor before dawn on December 21, 1946, two days after the mother's funeral, came to my senses in the big shake in which a house creaks. It was a large shake as it is the same as that of the time of the Tonankai earthquake of two years ago. It has sensed saying, "It is a big earthquake again !", curled up to looking down, and dived into bedding.


The shake of an earthquake thought that it continued for a long time fairly. Although the face was taken out from bedding and the appearance of the house was overlooked in being dark, there were no signs that something broke or the house declined.

隣で寝ている 兄、一階で寝ている 父 や 姉 たちと話し、無事を確かめ合いましたが、何しろ寒いのでまた寝床に入りました。

Since it was cold although it talked with elder brother who was sleeping next, father and elder sisters who were sleeping on the first floor and safety was confirmed mutually, we went into the bed again.

The crack of the Kochi Enokuchi southern
coast bank by the Nankai big earthquake
これが 昭和南海大地震 でした。震源は、和歌山県潮岬南南西78km、マグニチュード8.0。昭和19年(1944年)12月の 東南海地震 に並ぶ巨大地震でした。西日本の太平洋沿岸では、地震で建物が倒壊したうえに、大津波 が襲来しました。

This was the
Showa Nankai big earthquake. The focus is the Wakayama Shiono-misaki 8-km south-southwest, and is magnitude 8.0 on the Richter scale. It was a massive earthquake on a par with the Tonankai earthquake in December, 1944. In the Pacific coast of western part of Japan, the building collapsed in the earthquake and also massive tsunami invaded

和歌山県・徳島県・高知県 の沿岸部の被害がとくに大きく、多くの町や村が壊滅的被害を受け、高知市は、広い範囲が潮水に漬かりました。写真は、高知市 の家屋倒壊等の惨状です。写真は、いずれも 高知市 より転載許可を受けて掲載しています。昭和南海大地震 の強震と津波で、高知市は甚大な被害を受けました。その状況は高知市危機管理室のホームページで見ることができます。

Especially the damage of the area along the shore in Wakayama Prefecture, Tokushima Prefecture, and Kochi Prefecture was serious, and many towns and villages suffered destructive damage. The range with wide Kochi was flooded with tidewater. Photographs are tragic states, such as house collapse in Kochi. Each has published the photograph in response to reproduction permission from Kochi. Kochi suffered serious damage from the severe earthquake and tsunami of the
Showa Nankai big earthquake. The situation can be seen by the homepage of Kochi Crisis Management Office.

            * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

The tragic state the Great Kanto Earthquake
and near Tokyo Nihonbashi
平成23年(2011年)3月11日午後2時46分、東北地方の太平洋沖でマグニチュード9.0の大地震が発生し、東北と関東は 大震災 をこうむりました。多くの人命と財産が失われ、原子力発電所の放射性物質拡散を押さえ込むのに、必死の作業が続いています。

The big earthquake of magnitude 9.0 on the Richter scale occurred in the offing of the Pacific Ocean of the Tohoku district at 2:46 p.m. on March 11, 2011, and Tohoku and Kanto wore the great earthquake. Work desperate for much human lives and property being lost and holding down radioactive material diffusion of a nuclear power plant continues.

日本は世界有数の地震国。国土内と近海で四つのプレートが押し合い、プレート型巨大地震 と断層による 直下型地震 とが、たびたび起こります。

Japan is a world leading earthquake-prone country. Four plates push one another in a country in adjacent seas, and a plate type massive earthquake and the epicentral earthquake by a fault happen frequently.


In Japan, I can think that
big earthquake seldom happens when the country is in a rise term. But it happens at the time of the country going to decline, and the time of bottom .

大正12年の 関東大震災 のときは、その1週間前に加藤首相が死去し、内閣総辞職の直後、総理大臣不在のときに地震が起きました。地震の翌日、当時70歳の 山本権兵衛 が総理大臣の大命を受け、直ちに戒厳令を発動し、死者・行方不明14万人を超える中、自ら陣頭指揮して、混乱を最小限にとどめました。東日本大震災のときの64歳の K総理大臣 はどうだったでしょうか。

In case of the Great Kanto Earthquake in 1923, the one week ago, Prime Minister Kato died and the earthquake occurred at the time of the Prime Minister absence immediately after resignation of the Cabinet en mass. Then 70-year-old Gombei Yamamoto was appointed as the Prime Minister on the day following the earthquake, and martial law was exercised immediately. While the dead and a missing person exceeded 140,000 people, it directed as a leader itself and minimized confusion. How was 64-year-old K Prime Minister in case of the Great East Japan Earthquake?

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